viernes, 20 de septiembre de 2013


How do I feel about my writing performance?

Going through a metacognitive analysis proves to be a very juicy exercise at the end of a course. Every time we reflect on our developement we are revising what we have actually learnt. Sincerity and objectivity are vital concepts at this point and when we find that the weak points have been lowered, we obtain certainty and self-confidence. After being requested to undergo such an analysis, it is of great importance to revise both improvements and weak points as well, as one's  actual perfomance will be defined after the analysis of both aspects.

           As far as my personal development in writing is concerned, I feel that a significant improvement has been evidenced in both the outcomes and my self-assessment. Firstly, having worked with the specific vocabulary has helped me to approximate to the requested genre. Secondly, I was able to recognize my mistakes more easily and consequently, I could take advantage of the editing step and make this process more efficient. Finally, I recovered the pleasure for writing, which had been lost a couple of years ago. All these events made me feel more confident with the subject itself and my subsequent written productions.

When considering the weak points, there are still some obstacles I would like to surpass with ease in the future. My weakest point this term has been confusing terms of British origin with others from American origin. This produced my not maintaining both local and global coherence of the text. Furthermore, another less serious difficulty was the permanent necessity to return to the theory whenever citing was requested. Finally, I had to make an enormous effort to maintain the unity of the texts as once I started writing about a topic, a lot of ideas started to flow from my mind and I found such a flow of ideas extremely difficult to control. Although weak points were present, the fact that I was able to recognize them on time help me to avoid further mistakes when writing.

All in all, I feel that the theory we were given to read has been very important for my personal development in the subject. Having known about the writing steps and having clarified the concepts of unity, coherence and cohesion made me fell more confident during the assignments. Although there is still a long way to go, significant improvements have been evidenced so far, and my being able to detect my weak points has also been really important. 

Working with synomym pairs:

Juicy: Syns. interesting, colourful, sensational, vivid, provocative, spicy.
Interesting:  that takes and keeps one's interest; giving entertainment.

Lower: Syns. to submerge, lessen, cut, reduce, moderte, diminish, decrease, slash, prune, minimize.
Lower: to make or become smaller in aount, degree, strength.
Reduce: to make less in size, amount, price, degree, etc

Clarify: Syns.  explain, resolve, interpret, illuminate, explicate, clear the air about, shed light on.
Clarify: to make clearer and easier to understand, esp. by explaining and giving more details.
Interpret: to understand the likely meaning of a statement, action, etc.

Long: Syn.extended, elongated, extensive, lengthy./ Prolonged, slow, dragging, interminable
Long: measuring a large amount from one end to the other.
Extensive: large in amount, area or range; having an effect on or including many parts.

Note on the Graphic Organizer:
Based on the theory from the book "From Paragraph to Essay" I arranged the organizer so that the structural similarities between the paragraph and the essay can be easily recognized. It is important to make clear that my metacognitive analysis is not a essay but it was intended to maintain coherence throughout the four paragraphs (as essays do).

"...The paragraph is introduced by either a topic sentence or a topic introducer followed by a topic sentence. In the essay, the first paragraph provides introductory material and established the topic focus. Next, the sentences in the body of a paragraph develop the topic sentence. Similarly, the body of an essay consists ofa number of paragraphs that expand and support  the ideas presented in the introductory paragraph. Finally, a terminator ands a paragraph. The essay, too, has a device which brings its ideas to a logically and psychologically satisfying completion: the concluding paragraph."
                                                                                               (From Paragraph to Essay. CH 4. P 17)

Works cited:

          Imhoom, M and Judson, H. (1991) 7th Edition. From Paragraph to Essay. Developing Composition Writing. UK

miércoles, 11 de septiembre de 2013

Class # 9 Argumentative Paper - The Conflict in Syria

SFD 41
Paper's Topic: Conflict in Syria
Paper's Heading:
A Prescription to Control the World
Alonso, Analia; Fares, Andrea; Torrecillas Xoana
Teacher: Saubidet, Stella

The Prescription to Control the World

     Syria has been involved in a bloody war for too many years, and although international investigators have made interesting discoveries about the real cause of this war, it is known that  USA, England and Saudi Arabia as well, stopped these researches with the unique intention of maintaining the truth hidden  The question should be who are the real actors that are today in the scenery of this conflict. It is obvious that there are not two groups fighting against each other, but there exists a third force that is not only provoking it to maintain its real intentions in secret (the intention of oil acquisition), but also inducing the use of chemical weapons to produce a worldwide aversion. The desire is undoubtedly  war as  the only way by which the actual international empire can preserve its power notwithstanding the terrible damages it causes due to its interests in worldwide and to its permanent political custom to induce and control other nation’s wills in foreign and international matters.

     The so called Syrian uprising began with protests against President Bashar al-Assad's regime  in March 2011. However, it crossed an important point a year and a half later, when the international Red Cross formally declared it a civil war. Since then, the United Nations estimates more than 100,000 people have died in the disputes between President Bashar al-Assad's government and rebel forces who want to oust him. The amount of innocent victims is still climbing higher as fighting rages across the country are increasing significantly. Tens of thousand people are escaping from Syria, searching refugee camps in neighbouring countries such as Turkey and Greece. Initially,  the protesters just wanted democracy and more considerable freedom. Once the security forces opened fire on peaceful demonstrations, people demanded that the President, Bashar al-Assad, resignation. However, President Assad strongly refused to resign.

     No one can ignore that the profound of this conflict seem to be the struggle between the supporters of a leader who ruled the country in a dictatorial way, and other groups that pretend to obtain recognition of their rights as well as the end of racial discrimination in a  more unprejudiced and equitable society.  A profound analysis of the conflict will manifest the secret real cause and will also evidence USA’s  interests in oil as the only genesis. As a matter of fact,  this country does not want Syria to sell oil to other countries in anything but US dollars, and by contrast,  Syria wants to sell oil to Russia in rubles and to China in Chinese currency and to other countries in whatever they want to exchange for it. Doubtless, as US made many times before, it uses all the techniques, known and unknown, to maintain the war, as a manner to appear itself as the sole salvation in the moment of its intervention, as well as making a secret work to assure the continuation of the conflict. In the same way, there is enough evidence to assert that UK has been exchanging weapons for oil with Saudi Arabia a pronounced enemy to Syria since 1985.

    It is known that the possession of oil is nowadays the best way to maintain the primacy over the world, and USA is using all the possibilities to obtain it.  The use of chemical weapons to solve war conflicts exists from the very beginning of human history and there is enough evidence to assert that people have been utilizing and refining them to cause terrible damage. Although the Geneva Protocol prohibited the use of these mortal elements in warfare in 1924, the latest news made us know the use of this frightening poison in the Syrian conflict. This horrendous behavior has originated an intricate of accusations between USA, UK, France and Saudi Arabia against Syria´s governor Bashar al-Assad and Russia. USA promoted the investigation, making a public campaign against Assad as well as being the most resolute supporter of intervention as the only way to preserve civilian lives. By contrast,  recent researches have demonstrated that it is not clear not only who used the chemical weapons, but also who was inducing this action in secret.

      Syrian Foreign  Ministry Makdissi said that Syria would use chemical weapons only in case of foreign aggression but never against civilians and asked the United Nations to launch an investigation. Russia’s foreign minister supported this position assuring that revels do not have the possibility to use these weapons without the complicity of a power government interested in the end of  Assad´s regime. In the same way, UN's investigation team said that it is unclear what strategic benefit can be obtained by the regime by using these weapons, in the light of the risk it represents as an aversion to the entire world.  It is expected that the results and statements by the Swedish scientist and weapons expert Ake Sellstrom will be objective and balanced, which would then be a difference to the usual double-standards by the officials of the United Nations (UN) in terms of Syria. On the other hand, although Obama is the most powerful promoter of intervention ( as he had made before in Irak), US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel believes that the poison gas was used on a small scale and as if it was not enough, according to Moscow´s ambassador to the United Nations, chemical weapons were clearly used  most likely by Syrian rebels with the support of a segment interested in the intervention.

    In spite of the fact that the conclusions of the investigations are still not clear, Obama arranged and sent three American ships in the Mediterranean Ocean, expecting the order to bomb Syria for three days under the mask of an advertence, without taking into account the fact that it can provoke a terrible damage in the civilians that they are supposed to be defending. “What is the plan? Where are we going in Syria? And what do you want to accomplish?” House Intelligence Committee Chairman Mike Rogers asked Sunday.The constant propaganda against Syria´s government made by USA, convinced other countries to follow its ambitious plans of domination, such as Arabia (a Syrian´s enemy) which has been exchanging oil by weapons from France.

     In conclusion, the conflict in Syria seems to be provoked by hidden and secret interests by the part of the USA among other powerful countries. At present, such tendency is being evidenced by the ready-to- bomb forces placed in the Mediterranean Ocean. What is the plan? Not only seems the plan to be ignoring Syrians’ freedom but also seems to be causing a division among the deeply affected Syrians who escape in order to feel themselves safe. Whether Syria used chemical weapons or not may be a worldwide question whose answer people may desire to know, but the obvious interest by the part of the powerful nations in undoubtedly telling us the whatever the conflict may be, there exists a clear interest to restrict Syria’ s business and economy thus creating an atmosphere of terror and uncertainty which makes this war even more hostile and cruel.

Works Cited:

          Telenoche ( September, 2nd) [tv programm], chanel 13

          WiseGEEK, clear answers for common questions. "What are Chemical Weapons?"[ONLINEAvailable at: [Last Accessed 30 August 2013].

         Znews, "Chemical weapons in Syria". [ONLINEAvailable[Last Accessed 30 August 2013].

       Znews, "Hagelspeaks with Israeli Defence Minister on Iran, Syria and Egypt". [ONLINEAvailable 870772.html[Last Accessed 30 August 2013].

        Znews, "Hundreds gassed to death in Syria, world paralysed". [ONLINEAvailable[Last Accessed 26August 2013].

jueves, 11 de julio de 2013

Entry # 10: RESEARCH PAPER: "Art: A Potential Bridge To Inclusion".

Graphic organizer:

Andrea Fares
Professor Saubidet
Language and Written Expression 4
July 10th

Art: A Potential Bridge to Inclusion
Firm Steps towards Inclusion through Art.

The conjecture that certain areas of expression, such as art, should be inclusive, has obtained international momentum these past years. During the last decade, we have experienced the so called “globalization of inclusion” and such inclusion, now seen as a priority matter, has placed itself in the agenda of most politicians and educators as a symbol of departure from normative thinking. As a matter of fact, inclusion was intended to produce the political change that integration could not. Promoting full diversity in certain areas of art has proved to be essential for the successful inclusion of the excluded population. Social inclusion, in particular, is being seen as a key to the vitality and dynamism of certain art-related institutions such as theatres, cinemas, TV channels and the film industry itself, as they promote authentic dialogue about race, culture and disability that embraces the complexity of underlying social and historical issues. However, as evidenced by the everyday experience, those areas of art aimed to promote inclusion have a negative impact and reach the unexpected target of segregation, which was the departure point. Further integration policies should be considered and put into practice in Argentina to make both art and integration arrive successfully to the intended aim.
There exist certain measures already taken internationally that could be considered in order to increase physical and programmatic accessibility. A good example of this is the case of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts In the USA (LCPA), where a new position has been created to control and be responsible for the Accessibility and Visitor Services. This position is responsible for overseeing physical and programmatic accessibility for people with disabilities, including visitors, artists and employees at the various venues and offices. Deeply knowledgeable about issued related to disabilities, the successful candidate will coordinate and collaborate with colleagues across departments to create an inclusive environment for all visitors. With experience in not only physical accessibility but also a strong familiarity with programmatic access in cultural spaces, the successful candidate will seamlessly integrate access precepts into programs and services LCPA offers.  Furthermore, said candidate will enhance community outreach and marketing efforts by partnering with individuals as well as social service, cultural, and other relevant organizations to raise awareness about and seek input on LCPA’s existing and future accessibility programs.  This includes overseeing internal and external advisory councils. As a key contributor to the larger Visitor Services (VS) team, the individual will have a superior guest care ethic and be able to seamlessly a commitment to seeing people as individuals and not as stereotypes integrate accessibility efforts into the larger guest care initiatives.  Adaptability, determination and follow-through are important characteristics of the successful applicant as well as a demonstrated ability to successfully lead cross-team collaborations.
Another important key issue is related to the things actors should know about race on stage. It is almost impossible not to “see race” in the performing arts. The centrality of vision in theatre structures almost every aspect of the production process. For example, headshots exist to enable a good, long look at a person before any hiring commitments are made. Here are three things that everyone should know about theatre and race. In the firs place, Theatre has engaged the topic of race relations since the very beginning. Throughout history, concerns and anxieties about race and cultural difference have been expressed on the stage. In ancient Athens, audiences sat in theatres and delighted in stories about the unchecked passions and seeming inferiority of foreigners. Look at that Cretan woman trying to seduce her half-Amazonian stepson! Shakespeare capitalized on anxieties stemming from the increased presence of Moors in England by imagining “black” characters—Aaron and Othello—who sleep with white women. Fifty years ago, Lorraine Hansberry famously staged the emotional toll that racism can have on a family in “A Raisin in the Sun.” David Henry Hwang, for much of his playwriting career, has used the theatre to challenge racial assumptions and stereotypes. More recently, race looms large in the Pulitzer Prize-winning writings of Bruce Norris (“Clybourne Park”) and Ayad Akhtar (“Disgraced”). In the second place, It’s okay to “see” race on stage. When we encounter someone or something for the very first time, we pay close, close attention to just about everything. We take in all of the details. It’s natural. However, as that person or thing becomes more familiar to us, we begin to overlook and even forget many of the attributes that we could not help but notice in our initial encounter. Similarly, spectators pay close, close attention to the opening moments of a play with the aim of making sense of this new world being unveiled to them. To see that Tony Award-winning actors Cicely Tyson and Audra McDonald are African American is simply a matter of being observant. As the play progresses, spectators become less conscious of an individual actor’s race as the performer melds into her role and the audience becomes absorbed into the world of the play. A person can “see” and, later, “not see” race within a single production. Finally, there exists and implicit rule that is Absenting characters of color, absents artists of color. Aspiring playwrights and screenwriters are generally taught not to specify the race of their characters—unless a character’s race is consequential to the dramatic narrative. The aim is to create the greatest flexibility in casting and to increase the odds of the work being produced. Since it is impossible to imagine a person as being race-less, the default assumption is that most unspecified characters are white. Although producers, directors, and casting agents have discretion in the person who they hire to work on a production, they frequently begin with a script that absents people of color. Actors of color lament the  limited number of roles created for them. If not for the writings of Luis Alfaro, David Henry Hwang, Regina Taylor, and August Wilson among others, many artists—including directors and designers of color—would not be able to make a living in the theatre. These are individuals whose employment options are determined, in part, by their race and how they are seen within the theatre industry.
Empirical evidence has shown that some theatre companies and some film directors have included disabled people in their projects. Inspired by the 1920 Lon Chaney silent film of the same name, "The Penalty" is the story of a legless criminal who has sworn revenge on the doctor who wrongfully amputated his legs as a child. The late playwright, John Belluso once said, ‘that to be disabled, was to always be on stage.’ As a person with a disability (He was born with spastic cerebral palsy), he is constantly dealing with people’s gazes in his every day life and managing that negotiation between seeing and being seen. For him, the awareness of how that could translate to acting was in 7th grade when for the first assignment in his Speech & Drama class, he chose to perform Mark Antony’s, “Friends, Romans, Countrymen…” speech from Julius Caesar. ‘Suddenly, people were looking at me differently and I realized that through performance I could to some extent control my audience. That was how I entered this world but my reasons for staying have since evolved´, he added. (qtd. In Belluso).
Current projects to encourage inclusion through art include programs that support the ever-expanding mosaic of diversity and inclusion in theatre, film, television, and related media. However, there are still a lot of measures to consider and subsequently apply. Among the projects already taken by the United States of America, there are five that clearly evidenced inclusion and which could be taken into account in order to design local measures in our country. One of the projects was called  TCM “The Projected Image: A History of Disability in Film”. Presented in collaboration with Inclusion in the Arts, Turner Classic Movies (TCM) dedicated the month  of October 2012 to exploring the ways people with disabilities have been portrayed in film. On behalf of Inclusion in the Arts, Lawrence Carter-Long joined TCM host Ben Mankiewicz for The Projected Image: A History of Disability in Film. The special month-long exploration aired Tuesdays in October 2011. Another project was the Advocacy, Consulting & Information Program. Inclusion in the Arts maintains relationships with artists, producers, directors, casting directors, agents and unions in theatre, film and television, and related media.  They promote and facilitate cultural diversity at all levels of production.  Inclusion in the Arts also serves as a resource for funding agencies, educational institutions, the media and the general public seeking information and background on these issues. Services range from acting as a sounding board and expert consultant for companies dealing with these issues, assisting writers with ideas, providing specific language for casting notices and/or program notes, to facilitating and/or participating in project-related discussions and/or events. The Disability/Accessibility Initiative, a subset of the Advocacy/Consulting and Information Program, directly addresses the fact that nearly 20% of Americans (56 million people) have a disability of some kind, yet this largest minority is seriously underrepresented in American arts and entertainment. The third proposed project was the  Audience Expansion Initiative. Thanks to the partnership between Inclusion in the Arts and G-PASS, 1.1 million New Yorkers and 56 million Americans with disabilities will have the opportunity to enjoy more Broadway shows than ever before. The Broadway Accessibility/Audience Expansion Initiative sets a new standard for collaboration between producers and accessibility specialists at all stages of production. The fourth project was called DEAL: Disability in Entertainment and Arts Link. It is a project of Inclusion in the Arts dedicated to the full inclusion of people with disabilities—physical, developmental, intellectual, and sensory—in all sectors of American arts and entertainment.  DEAL was expressly created to serve writers, directors, producers, technicians, network and studio executives, casting directors, and disabled artists at every stage of the creative process—from development of the initial idea through production, marketing, and public presentation. Another project was A Conversation About Disability”. On April 18, 2006, a group of writers, actors, directors, and filmmakers gathered at HBO headquarters in New York City to discuss how to write about disability today.  The conversation focused on how to create authentic portrayals of disability.  The panel discussed what distinguishes authentic portrayals from clichéd, symbolic, or token representations of disability.  Panelists characterized disability as a minority “whose stories had not been told,” and emphasized the natural connections between disability and other social issues (poverty, race, sexuality, family).  Finally,  the National Diversity Forum was created. Inclusion in the Arts’ National Diversity Forum (NDF) is comprised of Roundtables, Resource Events, and Opinion Pieces.  The purposes of the Roundtables and Resource Events are to a) deepen dialogue and expand understanding of diversity through candid and constructive discussion; b) spark change toward more inclusive standards and practices; and c) build an expanding group of leaders in the field committed to resolving the issues related to racism and exclusion.
It can be then summarized that art is a key element for obtaining inclusion in our increasingly exclusive society. Citizens, actors, directors, producers and artists in general should be aware of this concern and involve into a commitment to seeing people as individuals and not as stereotypes. In the light of such a concern, it  has been evidenced that avoiding employment options being determined by race has proved to be one of the short-term measures to be taken. As in the case of castings and performances, greater flexibility should be applied and race should not be specified when selecting an actor or creating a role. On the other hand, the roles of actors and their subsequent compromise are essential to this goal. They should express their concerns and anxieties about race and cultural difference as much as they can, both through their acting and through their actions every day. Finally, local governments and the National Government itself need to set the path for inclusion, taking care of every possible obstacles regarding accessibility to public places such as theatres, cinemas and venues and should provide their employees with the necessary training courses as far as guest care ethic and accessibility services are concerned.

Works Cited
Belluso, Juan. "3 Things Actors should know about race on Stage". Alliance for Inclusion in the Arts. retrieved June 13th, 2013.
Graham, Linda. J & Jahnukahen, Markku (2011)  "Wherefore art thou, inclusion? Analysing the development of inclusive education. "Finland and Alberta. Jornal of education Polcy, 26 (2), pp. 263-288..
Gunn, Samuel. "The Public Culture of the Victorian Middle Class.Y Manchester. Manchester University Press. (2000) Print
Gordon, Sindy. "Still more of  our Parts opens today! " retrieved June 13th, 2013.
McRae. Daniel. "The Integration/Inclusion Feasibility". NSW Department of Schools Education (1006) Print.
Northway, Robert. "Integration and Inclusion: Illusion or Progress in Services for Disable People?" Social Policy and Administration (1997). 31 (2), 57, 172
Young, Harvey. "3 Things Actors should know about race on Stage". Alliance for Inclusion in the Arts. retrieved June 13th, 2013.

miércoles, 5 de junio de 2013

Entry # 9 - "Another conclusion for the essay."

Not only should both the State and local legislators commence to consider the existing problem deriving from the use of the cell phone in moving vehicles seriously, but also reflect on the necessity to harden those laws restricting the use of such phones when driving. "The problem should be a public concern and politicians should act accordingly,'' says Xoana Torrecillas of the National Conference of State Legislatures. Florencia Tovagliari from the A.C.A agrees: "This is the time for the changes to occur," she expresses, to consider and pass laws. It is now the momentum in which individual awareness should be fostered by the part of the drivers and as a result, the number of fatal accidents will be considerably reduced in the light of both the application of the necessary rules and the individuals' reflection on this serious regard.

Works Cited

Torrecillas, Xoana. ¨Cell phones and conscious driving: 2012.¨ National Conference of State Legislatures. Natl. Conf. of State Legislatures, March 2012. Web. June 23, 2012.
Tovagliari, Florencia. ¨Awareness makes the difference¨ Drivers Today. Automovil Club Argentino. 25 Sept, 2011: Print.

lunes, 3 de junio de 2013


Language and Written Expression IV
Name of Student: Maria Andrea Fares
Mate's Name: Rodrigo Alvarenga

Paragraph One:

"Immigration: Borders Beyond Control"

International Migration has recently become one of the main concerns that now seize the attention of politicians and intellectuals across the world, as it is becoming increasingly difficult to control in the light of the economic crisis. In the case of most Western countries, most immigrants come from very poor countries such as Paraguay, Bolivia, and Cuba. The United States of America is one of the Western countries that exhibited a greater concern on this regard and consequently, applied extremely hard migration laws to prevent this kind of immigration, as they manifested to be experiencing serious illegal labour claims due to the employment of illegal immigrants. In the case of the Eastern countries, most immigrants arrive from emerging countries, such as  Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina. On its part, Israel is the Eastern country that offered the biggest amount of opportunities for immigrants, thus fostering the entry of potential qualified skilled workers. On the contrary case, Australia received severe condemnation worldwide last summer when a special envoy of the UN commissioner for human rights exposed the deplorable conditions in detention camps that held asylum seekers who had landed in Australia. As local economies are becoming victims of the worldwide crisis, immigration is now being seen as a threat for the governments of  many countries across the world.

Paragraph TWO:

"Immigration: Borders Beyond Control"

International Migration has recently become one of the main concerns that now seize the attention of politicians and intellectuals across the world, as it is becoming increasingly difficult to control in the light of the economic crisis. In the case of most Western countries, most immigrants come from very poor countries such as Paraguay, Bolivia, and Cuba. The United States of America is one of the Western countries that exhibited a greater concern on this regard and consequently, applied extremely hard migration laws to prevent this kind of immigration. At the same time,  they manifested to be experiencing serious illegal labour claims due to the employment of illegal immigrants. In the case of the Eastern countries, most immigrants arrive from emerging countries, such as  Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina. On its part, Israel is the Eastern country that offered the biggest magnitude of opportunities for immigrants, thus stimulating the arrival of potential experienced workers. On the contrary case, Australia received severe condemnation worldwide last summer when a special envoy of the UN commissioner for human rights exposed the deplorable conditions in detention camps that held asylum seekers who had landed in Australia. As local economies are becoming victims of the worldwide crisis, immigration is now being seen as a threat for the governments of  many countries across the world.

Entry # 7 - Topic Sentence - Body - Conclusion (Shared Assignment)

Assignment shared with Rodrigo Alvarenga (ISFD 41)



Teenagers in Argentina are finding it increasingly difficult to experience happiness due to the excess of consumption. Most teenagers tend to release their tension by consuming goods they do not really need. The leading consuming device these days is the mobile phone, which seems to be a truly necessary tool to keep teenagers connected to the outside world. In the second place, they adore buying electronic devices such as Mp3, Mp4, game consoles and digital cameras to take pictures to be posted on the net immediately. In the third place, they enjoy buying digital movies even though there is a trend nowadays to download such movies from the net. Finally, they sometimes like buying best sellers, but they buy them just for fashion as they first watch the movies based on such books in the cinema. As a conclusion, it has been proved that such consumption has been replacing the need for teenagers to enjoy an outdoor life and feel relaxed themselves. Consumption does not help for adolescents´ happiness and leads to their isolation.


MY MATE´S PARAGRAPH (Rodrigo Alvarenga)

Nowadays, teenagers have got a need of posting in the net whatever they do to become more popular.
Most teenagers tend to release their tension by consuming goods they do not really need. The leading consuming device these days is the mobile phone, which seems to be a truly necessary tool to keep teenagers connected to the outside world. In the second place, they adore buying electronic devices such as Mp3, Mp4, game consoles and digital cameras to take pictures to be posted on the net immediately. In the third place, they enjoy buying digital movies even though there is a trend nowadays to download such movies from the net. Finally, they sometimes like buying best sellers, but they buy them just for fashion as they first watch the movies based on such books in the cinema.
This constant posting that the teenagers do, it is the way they have to belong to the virtual world.

Metacognitive analysis:

I believe that my mate´s topic sentence does not include all the ideas developed in the body of my first paragraph. The supporting ideas within it are mainly focused on consumption and not on posting in the net.

Rodrigo´s conclusion is also based on the virtual world and not on the buying of unnecessary things such as an M3 or MP4.

As a matter of fact, I do believe that both versions differ dramatically as far as the topic or subject is concerned. My version was focused on consumption and Rodrigo´s on the virtual world.

I repeated some words for the sake of emphasis and also used pronouns to make reference to items previously mentioned and reach cohesion.

domingo, 2 de junio de 2013

Entry # 6 - "Structured Paragraph Writing". (Fares-Alvarenga).


Bulleted list of the most important issues.

    1. TOPIC SENTENCE: It instroduces the topic or subject. Writers should  choice an interesting topic and avoid details here.
    2. BODY: It is the heart of the paragraph. It contains the supporting details (either by order of importance or chornologically). 
    3. CLOSING SENTENCE: It has two functions:
                1. as a reminder of the topic sentence
                2. as a trigger to keep the audience thinking.
What follows is an interesting video about Structured Paragraph Writing in US Universities:

What follows is another interesting video on Structured Paragraph wiritng from Massei University:

There are three elements for successful paragraphs:

  1. The Style
  2. Correct Punctuation
  3. Paragraphing: A paragraph is an expression of organized thought. Evidences understanding of the material. A good paragraph:
          •  Can be narrative, persuasive, declarative, expository, etc
          • Is a distinct section in a piece of writing (starts on a new line).
          • Is a number of related sentences with one main idea.
  • Elements:
    • A distinct piece of writing (easy to identify - new line).
    • Focused on the main idea.
    • Well organized: COHESION (ideas clearly linked to each other).
  • Qualities:
    • Unity: all sentences are focused on the main idea. Point of discussion must not be changed.
      • Topic Sentence:
      1. Parts: 
        1. Topic or subject.
        2. Controlling idea (specific comment about the topic)
          • Use WH-questions to generate controlling ideas (who, when, what, where, why and also how).
      2. Position of Topic Sentence:
        • It can be the first sentence of a paragraph, or
        • It can be placed elsewhere, even at the end.
    • Coherence: all sentences are clearly related to each other.
      • Create logical bridged from one sentence to another:
        • by repeating key words
        • by using synonyms
        • by using pronouns to refer to previous nouns or the topic
        • by using transition words (as a result, furhtermore, etc).
    • Development: the main idea is supported with sufficient details.
      • Details and evidence.
      • Illustrate point with examples (do not re-state it)
          • Structure: TEE (topic sentence - explanation - examples or evidence)
Some paragraphs may not have a concluding sentence.
A concluding sentence helps to summarise the most important ideas.


AlexESLvid, Parts of a Paragraph. English Academic Writing Introduction. Available at : Retrieved May 30, 2013

Massei University, Writing Structured Paragraphs, Available at: Retrieved: May 30, 2013.

jueves, 23 de mayo de 2013

Entry # 5. SHE IS A WRITER

Before referring to the assignment itself,  I consider it extremely useful to make it clear what an argument is. According to the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, an argument is "a reason given to support or disprove something. The use of reason to decide something or persuade someone."

Now that the concept of argument is clear, I will proceed to the assignment itself.


Chimanda Ngozi Adichie claims that as people read, they are permanently faced with the danger of a single story, thus becoming impressionable and vulnerable in the fields of modern literature. In her early childhood in Nigeria, she received her first literature influence from English and American literature for children. Such literature encouraged her imagination but people like her did not exist at all. At the age of four, she met African books, and such literature produced a kind of mental shift in her perception of literature, as coloured people did exist in the stories this time. African literature saved her from having a single story. Later, at the age of eight, her mother told her story about a poor boy, and all Chimanda knew about him was from her mother's tongue. Poverty was her single story of him. Once she met the boy's mother, she knew that she could do certain things Chimanda did not know. Chimanda only knew a single story of the boy and his family. Yet later when she left Nigeria and established in the USA, her American roommate made assumptions about her that, of course, were extremely wrong. Her roommate only knew a single story about Nigerians. Such single story installed the question of pity in her perception of Nigerian culture as she did not know many facts about them. There existed a default position according to which there was no possibility of Africans being similar to her, of feelings more complex than pity.  Before she went to the US, Chimanda did not identify herself as an African. After that, she became conscious of her African identity. A few years ago, she visited Mexico and realised she had been extremely influence by the media coverage of Mexicans. She had only thought of them as illegal immigrants. She  only knew a single story again. All the stories she mentioned made her who she really is. It can be then summarized that single stories create stereotypes and such stereotypes are incomplete. 

"When we reject a single story,
a regain a kind of paradise".
(Chimanda Ngozi Adichie)


Youtube, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: Commonwealth lecture 2012. Available at: Retrieved: May 15, 2013

Nairaland Forum, Chimamanda Adichie: 16 Things You Did Not Know About Her.

For further information about the writer, please visit:

viernes, 10 de mayo de 2013


What follows is a summary on the APA Citation Style from the Cornell University Library available at:

APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa.
The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this summary include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.

Reference Citations in Text
In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.

Works by a single author
The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.

from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)

If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing information in parentheses.

Simon (1945) posited that

Works by multiple authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&).
as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)
In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."
as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found
In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.
Kahneman et al. (1991) found

Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.
The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference.
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)
When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty.
(NIMH, 2007)

Works with no author
When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)
Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981)

Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date.
on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)

Specific parts of a source
To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation.

(Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)

De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218).
If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or the heading and following paragraph.
(Mönnich & Spiering, 2008, para. 9)

Reference List
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
  • Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list.
  • Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M.
  • Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title.
  • Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.
  • Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent".
  • Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals.
Two additional pieces of information should be included for works accessed online.
  • Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a digital object identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from.
  • Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case of a journal article, the date within the main body of the citation is enough. However, if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article, include the date that you retrieved the information.

·       The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in manuscripts or papers that will be typeset or submitted for official publication.

Articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers
References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers.

Journal article, one author, accessed online

Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002

Journal article, two authors, accessed online

Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 286-295. doi:10.1037/1065- 9293.59.4.286

Journal article, more than two authors, accessed online
Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63(3), 182-196. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.182

Article from an Internet-only journal
Hirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty of determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14(7/8). doi:10.1045/july2008-hirtle

Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI)
Colvin, G. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune, 158(2), 73-79. Retrieved from Business Source Complete, EBSCO. Retrieved from

Magazine article, in print
Kluger, J. (2008, January 28). Why we love. Time, 171(4), 54-60.

Newspaper article, no author, in print
As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The Wall Street Journal, p. A9.

Newspaper article, multiple authors, discontinuous pages, in print
Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online options. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A12.

References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
No Author or editor, in print
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.

One author, in print
Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company.

Two authors, in print
Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Corporate author, author as publisher, accessed online
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Tasmanian year book 2000 (No. 1301.6). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author. Retrieved from $File/13016_2000.pdf

Edited book
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2001). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

References for dissertations should include the following elements: author, date of publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections). If there is a UMI number or a database accession number, include it at the end of the citation.

Dissertation, accessed online
Young, R. F. (2007). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable cities (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 327681)

Essays or chapters in edited books
References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
One author
Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini (Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp. 67-86). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Two editors
Hammond, K. R., & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human judgment. In H. R. Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Encyclopedias or dictionaries and entries in an encyclopedia
References for encyclopedias must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. For sources accessed online, include the retrieval date as the entry may be edited over time.

Encyclopedia set or dictionary
Sadie, S., & Tyrrell, J. (Eds.). (2002). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (2nd ed., Vols. 1-29). New York, NY: Grove.

Article from an online encyclopedia
Containerization. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from

Encyclopedia article
Kinni, T. B. (2004). Disney, Walt (1901-1966): Founder of the Walt Disney Company. In Encyclopedia of Leadership (Vol. 1, pp. 345-349). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Research reports and papers
References to a report must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and name of publisher. If the issuing organization assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, or monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title. If it was accessed online, include the URL.

Government report, accessed online
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Medicaid drug price comparisons: Average manufacturer price to published prices (OIG publication No. OEI-05-05- 00240). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from

Government reports, GPO publisher, accessed online
Congressional Budget Office. (2008). Effects of gasoline prices on driving behavior and vehicle markets: A CBO study (CBO Publication No. 2883). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from

Technical and/or research reports, accessed online
Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper 14124). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from

Document available on university program or department site
Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain. Retrieved from Stanford University, Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Web site:

Audio-visual media
References to audio-visual media must include the following elements: name and function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, the medium in brackets, location or place of production, and name of the distributor. If the medium is indicated as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed.
Achbar, M. (Director/Producer), Abbott, J. (Director), Bakan, J. (Writer), & Simpson, B. (Producer) (2004). The corporation [DVD]. Canada: Big Picture Media Corporation.

Audio recording
Nhat Hanh, T. (Speaker). (1998). Mindful living: a collection of teachings on love, mindfulness, and meditation [Cassette Recording]. Boulder, CO: Sounds True Audio.

Motion picture
Gilbert, B. (Producer), & Higgins, C. (Screenwriter/Director). (1980). Nine to five [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.

Television broadcast
Anderson, R., & Morgan, C. (Producers). (2008, June 20). 60 Minutes [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

Television show from a series
Whedon, J. (Director/Writer). (1999, December 14). Hush [Television series episode]. In Whedon, J., Berman, G., Gallin, S., Kuzui, F., & Kuzui, K. (Executive Producers), Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros..

Music recording
Jackson, M. (1982). Beat it. On Thriller [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Music.

Undated Web site content, blogs, and data
For content that does not easily fit into categories such as journal papers, books, and reports, keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material. For electronic and online materials, include stable URL or database name. Include the author, title, and date published when available. For undated materials, include the date the resource was accessed.

Blog entry
Arrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Message posted to

Professional Web site
National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from

Data set from a database
Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved Dec. 3, 2008, from Bloomberg database.
Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Botswana. (2008). Gross domestic product per capita 06/01/1994 to 06/01/2008 [statistics]. Available from CEIC Data database.

Entire Web site
When citing an entire Web site (and not a specific document on that site), no Reference List entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper.
Witchcraft In Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology (

 APA Citation Style. Retrieved from Cornell University Library PSEC Documentation Committee. November 2002; Revised May 2013